The School of Science was established in May 2015. In August 1996, the basic Science Department of Yancheng Institute of Technology was established by merging the teaching and research departments of mathematics, physics and mechanics in the basic Department of Yancheng Technical College with those in the basic Department of Yancheng Vocational University. In February 2000, the mathematics teaching and research office of Yancheng accounting school was merged. In August 2004, it was renamed basic Teaching Department of Yancheng Institute of Technology. In 2013, the mechanics course was merged into the Physics Experiment Center of the former Experimental Teaching Department. In May 2015, the Department of Basic Education was renamed School of Mathematics and Physics.

The college consists of two university-level research departments: Department of Basic Mathematics, Department of Applied Mathematics, Department of Physics, Physics Experiment Center and Applied Mathematics and Applied Physics. It is responsible for teaching undergraduate students advanced mathematics, probability theory and mathematical statistics, linear algebra, complex functions, college physics and basic mathematics courses for graduate students. The school currently has two undergraduate programs in applied statistics, Data Science and Big Data Technology, and is also actively applying for the academic master's degree in physics.

The college has 57 full-time teachers, including 6 professors, 25 associate professors (including senior laboratory engineers), 26 doctors, 3 doctoral candidates and 21 masters. 6 people have been selected into the high-level talent plan of Jiangsu Province, such as "333 Project", "Qinglan Project" and "Six Talent Peaks". With Jiangsu University, Anhui University of Science and Technology jointly training graduate students, there are 6 master supervisors.